Panax ginseng has been used in traditional medicine to strengthen the body and mental well-being of humans for thousands of years. Many elite ginseng cultivars have been developed, and ginseng cultivation has become well established during the last century. However, heat stress poses an important threat to the growth and sustainable production of ginseng. Efforts have been made to study the effects of high temperature on ginseng physiology, but knowledge of the molecular responses to heat stress is still limited.
Ginsenosides have been widely used clinically for many years and were regarded as very safe. However, a few researches on the toxicities of these kinds of agents showed that some ginsenosides may have side effect on the rats or dogs. So it is extremely necessary to further clarify the potential toxicity of ginsenosides. This study was carried out to investigate long-term toxicity and genotoxicity of 25-OCH3-PPD, a new derivative of ginsenoside, in beagle dogs.
Gintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. We previously reported that gintonin stimulates gliotransmitter release in primary cortical astrocytes. Astrocytes play key roles in the functions of neurovascular systems. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence the normal growth and maintenance of cranial blood vessels and the nervous system, there is little information about the effect of gintonin on VEGF regulation in primary astrocytes, under normal and hypoxic conditions.