20(S)-Protopanaxatriol inhibits release of inflammatory mediators in IgE-mediated mast cell activation

Anti-allergic effect of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), an intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponins was investigated in the guinea pig lung mast cells (GPMCs) and mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) activated by specific antigen/antibody reaction. Methods: Increasing concentrations of PPT were pretreated 5 min before antigen stimulation, and various inflammatory mediator releases and their relevant cellular signaling events were measured in those cells.

A prebiotic fiber increases the formation and subsequent absorption of compound K following oral administration of ginseng in rats

Gut microflora play a crucial role in the biotransformation of ginsenosides to compound K (CK), which may affect the pharmacological effects of ginseng. Prebiotics, such as NUTRIOSE® could enhance the formation and consequent absorption of CK through modulation of gut microbial metabolic activities. In this study, the effect of a prebiotic fiber (NUTRIOSE®) on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside CK, a bioactive metabolite of ginsenosides, and its mechanism of action were investigated.

Effect of ginseng and ginsenosides on melanogenesis and its mechanism of action

Abnormal changes in skin color induce significant cosmetic problems and affect quality of life. There are two groups of abnormal change in skin color; hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation. Hyperpimentation, darkening skin color by excessive pigmentation, usually are major concerns Asian people with yellow brown skin. A variety of hypopigmenting agents have been used, but the treating hyperpigmented condition is still challenging and the results are often discouraging. Panax ginseng has been used traditionally in eastern Asia to treat various diseases, due to its immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and anti-tumor activities.

Anti-inflammatory activity of AP-SF, a ginsenoside-enriched fraction, from Korean ginseng

Korean Ginseng (KG) is an ethnopharmacologically valuable herbal plant with various biological properties including anti-cancer, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Since there is currently no drug or therapeutic remedy derived from KG, we developed a ginsenoside-enriched fraction (AP-SF) for prevention of various inflammatory symptoms.

Ginseng improves cognitive deficit in advanced glycation end products-induced rats via RAGE/NF-κB pathway

Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng (PG), has been used widely as a herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. PG had pharmacological effects on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PG and the possible neuroprotective mechanisms in advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced AD model rats.

Structural investigation of ginsenoside Rf with PPARγ major transcriptional factor of adipogenesis and its impact on adipocyte

Adipocytes, which are the main cellular component of adipose tissue, are the building blocks of obesity. The nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ is a major regulator of adipocyte differentiation and development. Obesity, which is one of the most dangerous yet silent diseases of all time, is fast becoming a critical area of research focus.

Korean Red Ginseng protects dopaminergic neurons by suppressing the cleavage of p35 to p25 in a Parkinson's disease mouse model

Ginseng is known to have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The present study investigated a possible role of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) in suppressing dopaminergic neuronal cell death and the cleavage of p35 to p25 in substantia nigra (SN) and striatum (ST) using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson’s disease mouse model.