Panax ginseng has been used in traditional medicine to strengthen the body and mental well-being of humans for thousands of years. Many elite ginseng cultivars have been developed, and ginseng cultivation has become well established during the last century. However, heat stress poses an important threat to the growth and sustainable production of ginseng. Efforts have been made to study the effects of high temperature on ginseng physiology, but knowledge of the molecular responses to heat stress is still limited.
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Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicological study of a novel ginsenoside derivative 25-OCH3-PPD in beagle dogs
Ginsenosides have been widely used clinically for many years and were regarded as very safe. However, a few researches on the toxicities of these kinds of agents showed that some ginsenosides may have side effect on the rats or dogs. So it is extremely necessary to further clarify the potential toxicity of ginsenosides. This study was carried out to investigate long-term toxicity and genotoxicity of 25-OCH3-PPD, a new derivative of ginsenoside, in beagle dogs.
Gintonin-mediated release of astrocytic vascular endothelial growth factor protects cortical astrocytes from hypoxia-induced cell damages
Gintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. We previously reported that gintonin stimulates gliotransmitter release in primary cortical astrocytes. Astrocytes play key roles in the functions of neurovascular systems. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence the normal growth and maintenance of cranial blood vessels and the nervous system, there is little information about the effect of gintonin on VEGF regulation in primary astrocytes, under normal and hypoxic conditions.
Red Ginseng Monograph
Ginseng has been traditionally used for several millennia in Asian countries including Korea, China, and Japan, not only as a nourishing and tonifying agent but also as a therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases. In recent years, the various effects of red ginseng including immunity improvement, fatigue relief, memory improvement, blood circulation improvement, anti-oxidation, mitigation of menopausal women’s symptoms, and anti-cancer have been reported in clinical as well as basic research. Around the world, there is a trend of the rising consumption of health functional foods on the level of disease prevention along with increased interest in maintaining health because of population aging and the awareness of lifestyle diseases and chronic diseases.
The Standardized Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Its Ingredient Ginsenoside Rg3 Inhibit Manifestation of Breast Cancer Stem Cell-like Properties through Modulation of Self-renewal Signaling
The ginsenoside Rg3, one of active components of red ginseng, has chemopreventive and anti-cancer potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) retain self-renewal properties which account for cancer recurrence and resistance to anti-cancer therapy. In our present study, we investigated whether Rg3 as well as the standardized Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) could modulate the manifestation of breast cancer stem-like features through regulation of self-renewal activity.
Ginsenoside Rb1 increases macrophage phagocytosis through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase/Akt pathway
Ginsenoside Rb1, a triterpene saponin, is derived from the Panax ginseng root and has potent anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we determined if Rb1 can increase macrophage phagocytosis, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms.
Computational and experimental characterization of estrogenic activities of 20(S, R)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S, R)-protopanaxatriol
As the main metabolites of ginsenosides, 20(S, R)-protopanaxadiol (PPD(S, R)) and 20(S, R)-protopanaxatriol (PPT(S, R)) are the structural basis response to a series of pharmacological effects of their parent components. Although the estrogenicity of several ginsenosides has been confirmed, however, the underlying mechanisms of their estrogenic effects are still largely unclear. In this work, PPD(S, R) and PPT(S, R) were assessed for their ability to bind and activate human estrogen receptor α (hERα) by a combination of in vitro and in silico analysis.
Ginsenoside Rg1 augments oxidative metabolism and anabolic response of skeletal muscle in mice
The ginsenoside Rg1 has been shown to exert various pharmacological activities with health benefits. Previously, we have reported that Rg1 promoted myogenic differentiation and myotube growth in C2C12 myoblasts. In this study, the in vivo effect of Rg1 on fiber type composition and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle was examined.
Impact of NR1I2, ABC Transporters Genetic Polymorphisms on the Pharmacokinetics of Ginsenoside Compound K in Healthy Chinese Volunteers
Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is a promising drug candidate for rheumatoid arthritis. This study examined the impact of polymorphisms in NR1I2, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes on the pharmacokinetics of CK in healthy Chinese subjects.
Ameliorative effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on rheumatic diseases
Inflammation is a host-defensive innate immune response to protect the body from pathogenic agents and danger signals induced by cellular changes. Although inflammation is a host-defense mechanism, chronic inflammation is considered a major risk factor for the development of a variety of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic diseases are systemic inflammatory and degenerative diseases that primarily affect connective tissues and are characterized by severe chronic inflammation and degeneration of connective tissues.