Ginsenosides of Korean Red Ginseng extracts (RGE) and its saponin components suppress secretion of inflammasome-mediating cytokines, whereas the nonsaponin fraction (NS) of RGE oppositely stimulates cytokine secretion. Although direct exposure of NS to macrophages in mice induces cytokine production, oral administration of NS has not been studied in inflammasome-related disease in animal models.
Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an invaluable medicinal plant containing various bioactive metabolites (e.g. ginsenosides). Due to its long cultivation period, ginseng is vulnerable to various biotic constraints. Biological control using endophytes is an important alternative to chemical control.
20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), the aglycone part of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, possesses antidepressant activity among many other pharmacological activities. It is currently undergoing clinical trial in China as an antidepressant.
Gastric ulcer (GU) is a common gastrointestinal disease that can be induced by many factors. Finding an effective treatment method that contains fewer side effects is important. 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 is a kind of protopanaxadiol and has shown superior antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects in many studies, especially cancer studies. In this study, we examined the treatment efficacy of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on GU.
Ginsenoside compound K(C-K), a major metabolite of ginsenoside exhibits anti-cancer activity in various cancer cells and animal models. A cell signaling study has shown that C-K inhibited NF-κB pathway in human astroglial cells and liver cancer cells. However, the molecular targets of C-K and the initiating events were not elucidated.