Investigation of ginsenosides in different tissues after elicitor treatment in Panax ginseng – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Background: The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on ginsenoside production in different organs of ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) was evaluated after the whole plant was dipped in an MJ-containing solution. MJ can induce the production of antioxidant defense genes and secondary metabolites in plants. In ginseng, MJ treatment in adventitious root resulted in the increase of dammarenediol synthase expression but a decrease of cycloartenol synthase expression, thereby enhancing ginsenoside biosynthesis. While a previous study focused on the application of MJ to affect ginsenoside production in adventitious roots, we conducted our research on entire plants by evaluating the effect of exogenous MJ on ginsenoside production with the aim of obtaining new approaches to study ginsenoside biosynthesis response to MJ in vivo.Methods: Different parts of MJ-treated ginseng plants were analyzed for ginsenoside contents (fine root, root body, epidermis, rhizome, stem, and leaf) by high-performance liquid chromatography.Results: The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng root significantly increased after two days of MJ treatment compared with the control not subjected to MJ. Our results revealed that MJ treatment enhances ginsenoside production not in the epidermis, but in the stele of the ginseng root, implying transportation of ginsenosides from the root vasculature to the epidermis. Application of MJ enhanced protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides, whereas chilling treatment induced protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides.Conclusion: These findings indicate that the production of PPD- and PPT-type ginsenosides is differently affected by abiotic and biotic stresses in the ginseng plant, and they might play different defense mechanism roles.

Enzymatic transformation of ginsenosides in Korean Red Ginseng (Panax Ginseng Meyer) extract prepared by Spezyme and Optidex – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: In this study, we examined the effects of various enzymes on chemical conversions of ginsenosides in ginseng extract prepared by amylases. Rapidase, Econase CE, Viscozyme, Ultraflo L, and Cytolase PCL5 were used for secondary enzymatic hydrolysis after amylase treatment of ginseng extract, and ginsenoside contents, skin permeability, and chemical compositions including total sugar, acidic polysaccharide, and polyphenols were determined on the hydrolyzed ginseng extract. Rapidase treatment significantly elevated total ginsenoside contents compared with a control (p

An eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial for the anti-diabetic effects of hydrolyzed ginseng extract – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Objectives: We investigated the anti-diabetic effects of hydrolyzed ginseng extract for Korean participants in an eight-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.Methods: Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) participants (5.6≤FPG

Biological control of Colletotrichum panacicola on Panax ginseng by Bacillus subtilis HK-CSM-1 – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Background: Biological control of plant pathogens using benign or beneficial microorganisms as antagonistic agents is currently considered to be an important component of integrated pest management in agricultural crops. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Bacillus subtilis HK-CSM-1 as a bio-control agent against Colletotrichum panacicola.Methods: B. subtilis strain HK-CSM-1 used for its potential as a bio-control agent of ginseng anthracnose. C. panacicola were inoculated to ginseng plants, and disease incidence and severity assessment were carried out to examine biocontrol efficacy of the bacterium against the disease.Results: Inoculation of P. ginseng plants with B. subtilis significantly suppressed the number of disease lesions of C. panacicola and was as effective as chemical fungicide (Iminoctadinetris [albesilate]). The antifungal activity of B. subtilis against C. panacicola was observed on a co-culture medium. Interestingly, B. subtilis treatment did not significantly affect the diameter of the lesions, suggesting that the mechanism of protection was through the reduction in the incidence of infection related to the initial events of the infection cycle including penetration and infection via spore germination and appressorium formation rather than by the inhibition of invasive growth after infection.Conclusion: Our results suggest that B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 can be used as an effective and ecologically friendly bio-control agent of anthracnose in P. ginseng.