Research and implementation of Good Agricultural Practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China – Accepted Manuscript

Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing and preparation, and the implementation of GAP of TCM materials in Jilin Province were summarized.

Complete 1H and 13C NMR spectral analysis of the pairs of 20(S) and 20(R)-ginsenosides – Accepted Manuscript

Abstract: Ginsenosides, the major ingredients of Panax ginseng, have been under investigation for many decades due to a wide range of pharmacological activities in Asian countries. The less polar ginsenosides having one or two sugar residues are not present in nature and produced in the manufacturing process including heating, steaming, acid hydrolysis and enzyme reactions. Up to now, the 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data for identification of the less polar ginsenosides are often not available or scattered. We isolated 21 compounds including 10 pairs of 20(S) and 20(R) less polar ginsenosides (1-20), and an oleanane-type triterpene (21) from the processed ginseng preparation and tried to provide the complete 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data of the following compounds 1-21 for the rapid identification; 20(S)-ginsenosides Rh2 (1), 20(R)-Rh2 (2), 20(S)-Rg3 (3), 20(R)-Rg3 (4), 6′-O-acetyl-20(S)-Rh2 (20(S)-AcetylRh2) (5), 20(R)-AcetylRh2 (6), 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh2 (7), 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh2 (8), 20(S)-Rh1 (9), 20(R)-Rh1 (10), 20(S)-Rg2 (11), 20(R)-Rg2 (12), 25-hydroxy-20(S)-Rh1 (13), 25-hydroxy-20(R)-Rh1 (14), 20(S)-AcetylRg2 (15), 20(R)-AcetylRg2 (16), Rh4 (17), Rg5 (18), Rk1 (19), 25-hydroxy-Rh4 (20), and oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21).