Effects of Ginseng on Sex Steroid Hormone Estrogen and Androgen Receptors

Ginseng has been used in China for at least two millennia and is now popular in over 35 countries. It is one of the world’s popular herbs for complementary and alternative medicine and has been shown to have helpful effects on cognition and blood circulation, as well as anti-aging, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects, among many others. The pharmacological activities of ginseng are dependent mainly on ginsenosides. Ginsenosides have a cholesterol-like four trans-ring steroid skeleton with a variety of sugar moieties.

Enhanced antidiabetic efficacy and safety of the ginsenoside compound K in zebrafish by conjugation with β-cyclodextrin

20(S)-protopanaxadiol 20-O-D-glucopyranoside, or compound K (CK), exerts antidiabetic effects that are mediated by insulin secretion through KATP channels in pancreatic β-cells. However, the antidiabetic effects of CK may be limited due to its low bioavailability. Methods: In this study, we aimed to enhance the antidiabetic activity and lower the toxicity of CK by conjugation with β-cyclodextrin (CD) (CD-CK), and determined if the CD-CK compound enhanced pancreatic islet recovery compared with CK alone in an alloxan-induced zebrafish model.