Rare ginsenoside Ia synthesized from F1 by cloning and overexpression of the UDP-glycosyltransferase gene from : synthesis, characterization, and melanogenesis inhibition activity in BL6B16 cells

Ginsenoside F1 has been described to possess skin whitening effects on human. We aimed to synthesize a new ginsenoside derivative from F1 and investigate its cytotoxicity and melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16BL6 cells using recombinant glycosyltransferase enzyme. Glycosylation has the advantage of synthesizing rare chemical compounds from common compounds with great ease.

Metabolite profiling of fermented ginseng extracts by GC-MS

Ginseng contains many small metabolites such as amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates as well as ginsenosides. However, little is known about the relationships between microorganisms and metabolites during the entire ginseng fermentation process. We investigate metabolic changes during ginseng fermentation according to the inoculation of food-compatible microorganisms.

Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

Recently, we identified a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, called gintonin. We showed that gintonin induces [Ca2+]i transient-mediated morphological changes, proliferation, and migration in cells expressing LPA receptors and that oral administration of gintonin exhibits anti-Alzheimer’s disease effects in model mice. However, little is known about the intestinal absorption of gintonin. The aim of this study was to investigate gintonin absorption using two model systems.

Effect of hydrothermal processing on ginseng extract

Panax ginseng Meyer has been cultivated because of its medicinal effects on immune system, blood pressure, and cancer. Major ginsenosides in fresh ginseng are converted to minor ginsenosides by structural changes such as hydrolysis and dehydration. The transformed ginsenosides are generally more bioavailable and bioactive than the primary ginsenosides. In this study, therefore, hydrothermal processing was applied to ginseng preparation to increase the yields of the transformed ginsenosides, such as 20(S)-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5, and enhance antioxidant activities in an effective way.

Pectinase-treated protects against chronic intermittent heat stress-induced testicular damage by modulating hormonal and spermatogenesis-related molecular expression in rats

Elevated testicular temperature disrupts spermatogenesis and causes infertility. In the present study, the protective effect of enzymatically biotransformed Panax ginseng Meyer by pectinase (GINST) against chronic intermittent heat stress-induced testicular damage in rats was investigated.