Rare ginsenoside Ia synthesized from F1 by cloning and overexpression of the UDP-glycosyltransferase gene from : synthesis, characterization, and melanogenesis inhibition activity in BL6B16 cells

Ginsenoside F1 has been described to possess skin whitening effects on human. We aimed to synthesize a new ginsenoside derivative from F1 and investigate its cytotoxicity and melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16BL6 cells using recombinant glycosyltransferase enzyme. Glycosylation has the advantage of synthesizing rare chemical compounds from common compounds with great ease.