New metabolites from the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 by sp.229 and activities in inducing osteogenic differentiation by Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation

Ginseng is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in a range of therapeutic and health-care applications in East Asian countries. Microbial transformation is regarded as an effective and useful technology in modification of nature products for finding new chemical derivatives with potent bioactivities. In this study, three minor derivatives of ginsenoside compound K were isolated and the inducing effects in Wnt signaling pathway were also investigated.