ginseng exerts antidepressant-like effects by suppressing neuroinflammatory response and up-regulating Nrf2 signaling in the amygdala

Depression is one of the most commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying mechanism and medicine are not well-known. Although Panax (P.) ginseng has been reported to exert protective effects in various neurological studies, little information is available regarding its antidepressant effects.

Gut microbiota-mediated pharmacokinetics of ginseng saponins

Orally administered ginsengs come in contact with the gut microbiota and their hydrophilic constituents, such as ginsenosides, are metabolized to hydrophobic compounds by gastric juice and gut microbiota: protopanxadiol-type ginsenosides are mainly transformed into compound K and ginsenoside Rh2, protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides are to ginsenoside Rh1 and protopanaxatriol, and ocotillol-type ginsenosides to ocotillol. Although this metabolizing activity varies between individuals, the metabolism of ginsenosides to compound K by gut microbiota in individuals treated with ginseng is proportional to the area under the blood concentration curve (AUC) for compound K in their blood samples.

Proteomic change by Korean Red Ginseng in the substantia nigra of a Parkinson's disease mouse model

Recent studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) successfully protects against dopaminergic neuronal death in the nigrostriatal pathway of a Parkinson’s disease (PD) mouse model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration; however, the mechanism has yet to be identified. Therefore, in this study we used 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to investigate the effects of KRG on the changes in protein expression in the substantia nigra (SN) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice.

Ginseng seed oil ameliorates hepatic lipid accumulation and

Despite the large number of studies on ginseng, pharmacological activities of ginseng seed oil (GSO) have not been established. GSO is rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), mostly oleic and linoleic acids. UFAs are known to exert therapeutic effects in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the protective effect and underlying mechanisms of GSO against NAFLD using in vitro and in vivo models.

Functional role of ginseng-derived compounds in cancer

Ginseng is a natural product best known for its curative properties in diverse physiological processes such as cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension and maintenance of hemostasis in the immune system. In previous decades, there have been some promising studies into the pharmacology and chemistry of ginseng components and the relationship between their structure and function. The emerging use of modified ginseng and development of new compounds from ginseng for clinical studies have been a topic of study for many researchers.

Alleviation of diabetic complications by ginsenoside Rg3-enriched Red Ginseng extract in Western diet-fed LDL mice

In this study, we precisely showed how the Rg3-enriched Red Ginseng extract (Rg3-RGE) lowers glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in LDL-/- mice. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT), and steatohepatitis were found to be reduced, and atheroma formation was inhibited by Rg3-RGE.

Applications of leaves mediated gold nanoparticles in cosmetics relation to antioxidant, moisture retention and whitening effect on B16BL6 cells

Bioactive compounds in plant extracts are able to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. Panax ginseng is an oriental medicinal herb and an adaptogen which has been used to cure various diseases from long history. In addition, the P. ginseng leaves mediated gold nanoparticles are the value-added novel materials. Its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, moisture retention and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles (PgAuNPs) in cosmetic applications.

A proteomic approach reveals the differential protein expression in Drosophila melanogaster treated with red ginseng extract (Panax ginseng)

Red ginseng is a popularly used traditional medicine with anti-aging effects in Asian countries. The present study aimed to explore changes in protein expression underlying the mechanisms of lifespan extension and anti-aging caused by red ginseng extract (RGE) in Drosophila melanogaster.