Roles of ginsenosides in inflammasome activation

Inflammation is an innate immune response that protect the body from pathogens, toxins, and other dangers and initiated by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) expressing on or in immune cells. Intracellular PRRs, including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and cysteine aspartate-specific protease (caspase)-4/5/11 recognize various PAMPs and DAMPs and assemble protein complexes called ‘inflammasomes’.