Micro-/nano-sized Delivery Systems of Ginsenosides for Improved Systemic Bioavailability

Ginsenosides, dammarane-type triterpene saponins obtained from Ginseng, have been used as a natural medicine for many years in the Orient due to their various pharmacological activities. However, the therapeutic potential of ginsenosides has been largely limited by the low bioavailability of the natural products caused mainly by low aqueous solubility, poor biomembrane permeability, instability in the gastrointestinal tract, and extensive metabolism in the body. To enhance the bioavailability of ginsenosides, diverse micro-/nano-sized delivery systems such as emulsions, polymeric particles, and vesicular systems have been investigated.