Alteration of saponin composition by overexpression and RNA interference of the protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase gene ()

The roots of Panax ginseng contain noble tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins derived from dammarenediol-II. Dammarene-type ginsenosides are classified into the protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) groups based on their triterpene aglycone structures. Two cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are critical for the production of PPD and PPT aglycones, respectively. CYP716A53v2 is a protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase that catalyzes PPT production from PPD in P. ginseng.

Hippocampus-dependent cognitive enhancement induced by systemic gintonin administration

A number of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases shares impaired cognition as one of common symptoms. Therefore, the development of clinically applicable therapies to enhance cognition has yielded significant interest. Previously, we have shown that activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) via gintonin application potentiates synaptic transmission by the blockade of K+ channels in the mature hippocampus. However, whether gintonin may exert any beneficial impact directly on cognition at the neural circuitry level and the behavioral level has not been investigated.

Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng ( Meyer): history, preparation method, and chemical composition

It has been reported that Korean red ginseng has been manufactured since 1,123 years as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng are shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75: 25.