The role of ginsenosides, the main active components of , in inflammatory responses and diseases

Panax ginseng is one of the most universally used herbal medicines in Asian and Western countries. Most of the biological activities of ginseng are derived from its main constituents, ginsenosides. Interestingly, a number of studies have reported that ginsenosides and their metabolites/derivatives, including G-Rb1, compound K, G-Rb2, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg3, G-Rg5, G-Rh1, G-Rh2, and G-Rp1, exert anti-inflammatory activities in inflammatory responses by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and regulating the activities of inflammatory signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1.