Pharmacological and medical applications of ginseng and ginsenosides: A review for use in cardiovascular diseases

Panax ginseng, also called Asian or Korean ginseng, has long been traditionally used in Korea and China to treat various diseases. The major active ingredients of Panax ginseng are ginsenosides, which have been shown to have a variety of therapeutic effects, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxation, antiallergic, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer. To date, approximately 40 ginsenoside components have been reported. Current research is concentrating on using a single ginseng compound, one of the ginsenosides, instead of the total ginseng compounds, to determine the mechanisms of ginseng and ginsenosides.