Anti-melanogenesis and skin protective activities of Panax ginseng calyx ethanol extract

The anti-oxidant effects of Panax ginseng have been reported in several papers; however, little is known about the anti-melanogenesis effect, skin protective effect, and cellular mechanism of Panax ginseng, especially Panax ginseng calyx. To understand how an ethanol extract of P. ginseng berry calyx (Pg-C-EE) exerts skin protective effects we studied its activities in activated melanocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced keratinocytes.