Whitening efficacy of ginsenoside F1 through inhibition of melanin transfer in co-cultured human melanocytes-keratinocytes and three-dimensional human skin equivalent

GF1 suppresses dendrite formation of melanocytes, resulting in inhibition of melanosome transfer into keratinocytes in human cell co-cultures and 3D-human skin equivalent. Our results suggested that GF1 is a potent ginsenoside possessing potential as a depigmentary agent for pigmentary disorders and a cosmetic ingredient for lightening of skin color.