Comparative Phenolic Compounds Profiles and Antioxidative Activity of the Fruit, Leaves, and Roots of Korean Ginseng ( Meyer) According to Cultivation Years

Study on the phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots depend on the cultivation years have been little reported so far. Hence, this study examined phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation years.

Changes in the ginsenoside content during the fermentation process using microbial strains

Red ginseng (RG) is processed from Panax ginseng via several methods including heat treatment, mild acid hydrolysis and microbial conversion to transform the major ginsenosides into minor ginsenosides, which have greater pharmaceutical activities. During the fermentation process using microbial strains in a machine for making red ginseng, a change of composition occurs after heating. Therefore, we confirmed that fermentation had occurred using only microbial strains and evaluated the changes in the ginsenosides and their chemical composition.

Total saponin from Korean red ginseng inhibits binding of adhesive proteins to glycoprotein IIb/IIIa phosphorylation of VASP (Ser) and dephosphorylation of PI3K and Akt

Binding of adhesive proteins (i.e. fibrinogen, fibronectin, vitronectin) to platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (αIIb/β3) by various agonists (thrombin, collagen, ADP) involve in strength of thrombus. This study was carried out to evaluate antiplatelet effect of total saponin from Korean red ginseng (KRG-TS) by investigating whether KRG-TS inhibits thrombin-induced binding of fibrinogen and fibronectin to αIIb/β3.

Changes in the contents of prosapogenin in Red ginseng () depending on the extracting conditions

This study compared the contents of prosapogenin depending on the extracting conditions of Red ginseng to provide basic information for developing Red ginseng-based functional foods. The content of ginsenosides Rg3 reached their heights at 24 hrs of extraction, followed by 36 hrs and 72 hrs of extraction at 100°C.

Alteration of saponin composition by overexpression and RNA interference of the protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase gene ()

The roots of Panax ginseng contain noble tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins derived from dammarenediol-II. Dammarene-type ginsenosides are classified into the protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) groups based on their triterpene aglycone structures. Two cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are critical for the production of PPD and PPT aglycones, respectively. CYP716A53v2 is a protopanaxadiol 6-hydroxylase that catalyzes PPT production from PPD in P. ginseng.

Hippocampus-dependent cognitive enhancement induced by systemic gintonin administration

A number of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases shares impaired cognition as one of common symptoms. Therefore, the development of clinically applicable therapies to enhance cognition has yielded significant interest. Previously, we have shown that activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) via gintonin application potentiates synaptic transmission by the blockade of K+ channels in the mature hippocampus. However, whether gintonin may exert any beneficial impact directly on cognition at the neural circuitry level and the behavioral level has not been investigated.

Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng ( Meyer): history, preparation method, and chemical composition

It has been reported that Korean red ginseng has been manufactured since 1,123 years as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng are shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75: 25.