Effects of fermented black ginseng on wound healing mediated by angiogenesis through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

Fermented black ginseng (FBG) is produced through several cycles of steam treatment of raw ginseng, at which point its color turns black. During this process, the original ginsenoside components of raw ginseng (e.g., Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rc, and Rb2) are altered, and less-polar ginsenosides are generated (e.g., Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, and Rh4). The aim of this study was to inquire into the effect of FBG on wound healing.