and anti-inflammatory activities of Korean red ginseng-derived components

Although Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been traditionally used for a long time, its anti-inflammatory role and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have been poorly understood. In this study, the anti-inflammatory roles of KRG-derived components, namely water extract (KRG-WE), saponin fraction (KRG-SF), and non-saponin fraction (KRG-NSF), were investigated.

Effects of Ginseng on Sex Steroid Hormone Estrogen and Androgen Receptors

Ginseng has been used in China for at least two millennia and is now popular in over 35 countries. It is one of the world’s popular herbs for complementary and alternative medicine and has been shown to have helpful effects on cognition and blood circulation, as well as anti-aging, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects, among many others. The pharmacological activities of ginseng are dependent mainly on ginsenosides. Ginsenosides have a cholesterol-like four trans-ring steroid skeleton with a variety of sugar moieties.

Enhanced antidiabetic efficacy and safety of the ginsenoside compound K in zebrafish by conjugation with β-cyclodextrin

20(S)-protopanaxadiol 20-O-D-glucopyranoside, or compound K (CK), exerts antidiabetic effects that are mediated by insulin secretion through KATP channels in pancreatic β-cells. However, the antidiabetic effects of CK may be limited due to its low bioavailability. Methods: In this study, we aimed to enhance the antidiabetic activity and lower the toxicity of CK by conjugation with β-cyclodextrin (CD) (CD-CK), and determined if the CD-CK compound enhanced pancreatic islet recovery compared with CK alone in an alloxan-induced zebrafish model.

Morphine dependence is attenuated by red ginseng extract and ginsenoside Rh2, Rg3, and compound K

Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding to the effect of red ginseng against morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3 and compound K against morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats.

The role of ginsenosides, the main active components of , in inflammatory responses and diseases

Panax ginseng is one of the most universally used herbal medicines in Asian and Western countries. Most of the biological activities of ginseng are derived from its main constituents, ginsenosides. Interestingly, a number of studies have reported that ginsenosides and their metabolites/derivatives, including G-Rb1, compound K, G-Rb2, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg3, G-Rg5, G-Rh1, G-Rh2, and G-Rp1, exert anti-inflammatory activities in inflammatory responses by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and regulating the activities of inflammatory signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1.

A refined karyotype based on an ultra-high copy 167-bp tandem repeat and ribosomal DNAs

Panax ginseng Meyer (Asian ginseng) has a large nuclear genome size of over 3.5 Gbp in haploid genome equivalent of 24 chromosomes. Tandem repeats (TRs) occupy significant portions of the genome in many plants and are often found in specific genomic loci, making them a valuable molecular cytogenetic tool in discriminating chromosomes. In an effort to understand the P. ginseng genome structure, we characterized an ultra-high copy 167-bp TR (Pg167TR) and explored its chromosomal distribution as well as its utility for chromosome identification.

Photoprotective effects of topical ginseng leaf extract using Ultraflo L against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice

Abnormal activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in UV-induced wrinkle formation, which is a major dermatological problem. This formation occurs due to the degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the cutaneous photoprotective effects of ginseng leaf extract treated with Ultraflo L (UTGL) in hairless mice.

Cytohistological study of the leaf structures of Meyer and L

Both Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius are obligate shade-loving plants whose natural habitats are broadleaved forests of Eastern Asia and North America. Panax species are easily damaged by photoinhibition when they are exposed to high temperatures or insufficient shade. In this study, a cytohistological study of the leaf structures of two of the most well-known Panax species was performed to better understand the physiological processes that limit photosynthesis.