The use of different methods for the processing of ginseng can result in alterations in its medicinal properties and efficacy. White ginseng (WG), frozen ginseng (FG), and red ginseng (RG) are produced using different methods. WG, FG, and RG possess different pharmacological properties.
Red Ginseng (RG) is widely used to treat complications of diabetes and atherosclerosis due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.
Ocotillol-type saponins are one kind of tetracyclic triterpenoids, sharing a tetrahydrofuran ring. Natural ocotillol-type saponins have been discovered in Panax. quinquefolius L., Panax japonicus, Hana Mina, and Vietnamese ginseng. In recent years, the semi-synthesis of 20(S/R)-ocotillol-type saponins has been reported. The biological activities of ocotillol-type saponins include neuroprotective effect, anti-myocardial ischemia, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor etc. Owing to characteristics of their chemical structure, pharmacological actions and the stereoselective activity on anti-myocardial ischemia, ocotillol-type saponins are subjected to extensive consideration.
Korean Red Ginseng has been used for several decades to treat many diseases, enhancing both immunity and physical strength. Previous studies have documented the therapeutic effects of ginseng, including its anti-cancer, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities are mediated by ginsenosides present in the ginseng plant. Ginsenoside Rg3, an effective compound from Red Ginseng, has been shown to have anti-platelet activity in addition to its anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.
Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we describe the molecular evidence indicating that the pathogen strains are genetically polyphyletic and should be divided into several species.