The molecular signaling of ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Rg3 and their mode of actions

Ginseng has gained its popularity as an adaptogen since ancient days due to their triterpenoid saponins, known as ginsenosides. These triterpenoid saponins are unique and classified as protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol saponins based on their glycosylation patterns. It shows many protective roles in humans and is of intense research to understand their efficacy at the molecular aspect in various disorders. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 are the most abundant ginsenosides present in ginseng roots, and they confer the pharmacological property of it while ginsenoside Rg3 is abundantly present in the Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) preparation, which is highly known for its anti-cancer effect.